Complete notes on Garo Tribes

Garo Tribes

Garo is a hilly tribe of North-eastern India with a tradition of ‘shifting hill cultivation’. The Garo form one of the important matrilineal tribe inhabiting north-eastern region of India, mainly found in Meghalaya state.

They are also found in Kamrup, Goalpara and Khasi hill regions of Assam, Mymensingh district of Bangladesh and in Jalpaiguri, Cooch-Behar districts of West Bengal.

The Garo are divided into two sections: The Hill Garo and the Rain Garo. According Mayfair, their original home was in Tibet from where they migrated to India Under the leadership of ‘Garu’. Their group name had been probably derived from the name it their leader cum guide. They represent Mongoloid racial stock. They speak a language belonging to Tibeto-Chinese family of languages.

Economic and Material Material Culture


The Garo are, at present, mainly concerned with agriculture. They practice both permanent and ‘shifting hill cultivation’ which is known in the local term jhum. The Plain Garo, however, practice permanent wet cultivation in the same field, owned by them, every year. Artificial irrigation and manuring are known to them. They mainly cultivate paddy (summer variety). Maize, potato, tobacco are