Brief History of Vijayanagara Empire (Vijaynagar Kingdom)
Introduction to Vijayanagara Empire
In this effort to build the Vijaynagar Empire, two brothers, Harihara and Bukka took a prominent role. Their original home was Warangal where they worked as minister and treasurer respectively under Prataparudradeva, the Kakatiya ruler. They fled from Warangal in 1323 when it was besieged by the Muslims. They served under the rule of Kampili on the northern bank of Tungabhadra River.
When Kampili was captured by the Muslims, the brothers crossed the Tungabhadra River and founded in 1336 a new city which was named Vijayanagara (city of victory).
Four dynasties ruled over the Vijaynagar Kingdom in succession. They were:
- The Sangama dynasty,
- The Saluva dynasty,
- The Tuluva dynasty and
- The Aravidu dynasty.
The Sangama Dynasty (1336-1485 A.D.)
The Sangama Dynasty was founded by two brothers. They were Harihara I and Bukka Raya I.
The ruler of this dynasty include Harihara I (1336-1356 A.D.), Bukka I (1356-1377 A.D.), Harihara II (1377-1404 A.D.), Devaraya I (1406-1422 A.D.), Devaraya II (1422-1465 A.D.), and Virupaksha Raya (1465-1485 A.D.). During the rule of Virupaksha Raya, the Bahmani kingdom, which was ably administered by the Prime Minister, Mohammad Gawan, invaded Vijayanagar. Virupaksha was unable to meet the challenge of the Bahmani kingdom. The king was assassinated by his own son, who however renounced the throne as an act of repentance, in favour of his younger brother Proudha Devaraya. But Saluva Narasimha, eldest son of Saluva Gunda, the chief of Chandragiri near Tirupati, usurped the throne and founded the new dynasty.
The Saluva Dynasty (1485-1505 A.D.)
There were only two kings of this dynasty, namely, Saluva Narasimha Deva Raya and Immadi Narasimha.
The Tuluva Dynasty (1505-1570 A.D.)
The third dyansty to rule over the Vijayanagara Empire was Tuluva Dynasty.
Immadi Narasimha was murdered by Vira Narasimha who ascended the throne in 1505 and established a new dynasty called the Tuluva dynasty. He was succeeded by his famous half-brother Sri Krishnadevaraya in 1509.
The Aravidu Dynasty
The founder of the Last Hindu Dynasty of Vijayanagara Empire was Tirumala. They were defeated by the Bijapuri Muslim forces.